In this hands-on exercise, we configure IPv6 addresses on 3 routers in a triangle. Then we configure IPv6 static routes to allow the 6 IPv6 subnets (3 loopback, 3 P2P links) to be accessible on all 3 routers.Static routes are easy to understand. At first
In 2003, I made a VOIP call from home while downloading a large email attachment. The DSL line saturated and my audio quality became horrible while VOIP packets (and email packets) were being dropped. Doubling the bandwidth to my home would not have solve
The linked video introduces IPv6 theory. IPv6 is the 128-bit address replacement for IPv4. The Internet is expected to run out of it's 4-billion IPv4 addresses in 2012. IPv6 will replace IPv4 at the network-layer of the OSI stack. By replacing one layer i
The linked video provides guidance for optimal IOS version selection.The large number of IOS versions makes choosing the best version for your router or switch difficult. You must pick the most reliable version which includes the features you need. Differ
In this video demonstration, we show an example of writing IOS Access Control Lists (ACL's) on a home router. We use the revision control system (RCS) to maintain the master ACL file and push the ACL's to the router via TFTP. This is similar to many produ
IOS routers can act as DHCP clients and DHCP servers. They can also function as Network Address Translation (NAT) devices. In this video we show a demonstration using a 2621 as a DHCP client, server, and NAT translation device for my home network.It's imp
In this episode we show a video demonstration of the hot standby router protocol. This is a Cisco proprietary redundancy protocol. The purpose is to allow two routers to share one virtual IP address on an access subnet/vlan. Hosts on the subnet can use th
This video demonstrates layer-2 convergence in less than 2 seconds thanks to rapid spanning-tree.Rapid per-vlan spanning-tree is configured with "spanning- tree mode rapid-pvst".The rapid spanning tree protocol, 802.1w, is the answer to the slow convergenc
When you have two different links between the same two switches, normally spanning tree will forward on one and block on the other. This means half of your bandwidth is sitting idle. An etherchannel is a way to bind two links into one logical link with tw
VTP is the VLAN trunking protocol. It's used to disseminate uniform vlan information between switches over 802.1q or ISL trunks. It can also "prune" vlans, dynamically removing unneeded VLANs from trunks. This decreases unneeded frame flooding.VTP can eli
Switches can have multiple vlans. When we connect switches together we use 802.1q trunks (or older ISL trunks) to run multiple vlans over one physical link. With either trunking protocol, a tag is added to the ethernet frame with the vlan information. ISL
We cover intermediate spanning tree concepts. The importance of specifying your root bridge and backup root bridge with spanning-tree priority. Using portfast to allow host ports to start forwarding without waiting for 30 seconds. Using bpduguard to disab
VLANs are a feature of ethernet switches which makes them act like multiple "virtual switches". Each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain and could be configured with a separate subnet. That way could could have separate subnets for separate purposes (IT,
So far we've talked about how IPv4 encodes data into a packet, and how routers learn which direction to forward those IPv4 packets based on the destination IP address and the route table. But in the end, routers and hosts need to encode the IPv4 packet on
In BGP, MED stands for Multi Exit Discriminator. It is a well-known optional attribute which allows one autonomous system to inject it's IGP route metrics into its BGP advertisements to another BGP autonomous system. This allows the second autonomous syst
We filter BGP routes in 4 different ways.
We put together what we learned about eBGP, iBGP, and OSPF.
An iBGP example with 1 autonomous system with 3 routers.
An eBGP example with 3 autonomous systems with 1 router each.